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Franko's Map of Pearl Harbor, Oahu
In May of 2005 Franko's Map of Pearl Harbor was an idea in which side one of the map would be a historical account of what happened at Pearl Harbor when the Japanese Empire attacked on December 7, 1941, and side two would be a present day view of Pearl Harbor and what there is to see and do there. Side 1, would be depicted in sepia colors (similar to plain black and white, but neither black nor white, but rather like a 1941 newspaper's color). Side 2 would be in full, Hawaiian color, much like most of Franko's maps of the Hawaiian Islands. However, since Pearl Harbor has such an important place in American history, and since the site and its heroes who died there on that day are so revered by all Americans, the idea was to produce a most complete, compelling and respectful map rendering of this “Day of Infamy,” December 7, 1941. With so much of a story to tell - like a book on a map - and with so much respect and aloha deserved, the undertaking required an enormous amount of study and deep thought. Because of these factors and the complexity of the attack and the attack site at Pearl Harbor and around Oahu, this map also took more intense work than any other Franko Map in to date. In fact, unless I find some other equally important and compelling story to tell with a map, I don't think I can ever work that hard again! But I loved it!
It took almost a year of intermittent pondering and thinking about it, plus tons of reading about the history of Pearl Harbor before I felt up to even beginning. In March of 2006 I began to put my Pearl Harbor map ideas on paper. Well, really I put my ideas onto my pc, which is a lot faster and easier than paper, which is fortunate because I knew the task was going to be absolutely daunting. Because the story of Pearl Harbor is so compelling, as I got into the creation of Franko's Map of Pearl Harbor I revved up my mind and wrapped myself into this like no other project in my life. I worked for weeks, often in excess of 15 hours per day, usually 7 days per week. I just couldn't help it! I had a story to tell and a unique way to tell it. I didn't have time to even mow the lawn or take out the trash. I even forgot to eat at times! After a month of intense effort I printed out a prototype map and sent it plus an email image to Hawaii for checking and approval. I had drawn and documented the historical day of December 7, 1941, including the story of why Japan attacked, how its fleet approached north of Hawaii, and how its waves of attack planes swarmed over and surprised America's unsuspecting Air Force and Navy. The devastation of the attack was depicted with genuine photos from the attack, which are widely used in post cards and books, but which were laid out to summarize the effect of the sneak attack.
However, although I was already frazzled from the effort, I still had one huge hurdle to get over before this map would work, and I had still not even conceived of what I was to do for side two, the map of modern-day Pearl Harbor, which we can all visit. This might sound ridiculous, but that enormous hurdle that I had to get over was regarding the size of the map. I had made a map that measured 16.8 inches wide by 21 inches high. But you see, since Franko's Maps has numerous dive, guide and surf maps for the islands of Hawaii, and since they are all standardized as for size to 14” wide by 21” high, this map needed to be the same size and shape as all of my other products to fit in our retail displays for the numerous stores that would eventually sell it. But while I was hard at work creating Franko's Map of Pearl Harbor, I chose to fit the new map to whatever size it seemed to require, rather than try to fit it to a standard size format. I was simply trying to lay out the land and sea where the attack occurred, and didn't believe it could be done on a 14”x21” size sheet. It was an impossible task, or so I thought. I had been working from 6 or 7am until after midnight for a month on this project, with a burning desire to get it done in just one more month, but the map was indeed the wrong size and shape, even though it contained most of the information I wanted to convey already. What would I do about my Pearl Harbor Historical map? I went to sleep late, as usual, stewing over this problem. Two hours later, at 3am, I suddenly awoke with a clear vision of how to lay out Pearl Harbor, all of the battleships, the direction of the attack, and so forth. My prayer had been answered! I got up at 6am with confidence, knowing just what to do. I rearranged the map for the next 12 hours, again forgetting to eat, concentrating on the solution to the impossible Pearl Harbor problem, which had come to my mind in my sleep. I can't explain how that sort of thing happens, but it did and it worked. I still had days of editing, tweaking sentences, adjusting font size, and all kinds of details, but the basic layout of Franko's Map of Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941 was done!
I knew that side two of the map would also be daunting. I intended to draw a top view and side view of the USS ARIZONA, as if it were still in World War II condition. I also planned to draw the USS MISSOURI, our beloved “Mighty Mo”, in it's present-day condition, as it sits docked at Ford Island for thousands of visitors every day. These two ships - the wreckage and memorial which is the USS ARIZONA, and the magnificent and awesome battleship which is the USS MISSOURI - are situated in the present-day Pearl Harbor practically end-to-end. They represent respectively the beginning and the end of World War II for the United States of America. I had to depict both ships with diligence and naval architectural beauty. This map was not only to serve as a guide top present-day Pearl Harbor, but it would also be a souvenir and an educational item. Being an ocean engineer with a bit of naval architecture background myself, these drawings seemed doable. As it turned out the drawings were indeed not nearly as daunting as the job of trying to lay out the whole map in a complete and respectful manner. That turned out to take a lot of time and effort.
Along the way I drew a side view of the submarine USS BOWFIN, also known as “The Pearl Harbor Avenger.” The USS BOWFIN was called “The Pearl Harbor Avenger.” because it was dedicated on December 7, 1942, exactly one year after the infamous December 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor. This was not nearly as tricky to draw as the USS ARIZONA and the USS MISSOURI. However, I confess that I fabricated one piece of the USS BOWFIN image - the propellers. I did not know just how they are arranged, but having worked at a naval shipyard as an engineer many years ago, and having seen dozens of submarines in drydock, I had an idea of what it ought to look like and that's what I drew! However, the rest of the submarine drawing is pretty authentic.
One last detail about the present-day Pearl Harbor rendering is actually ahead of its time. I show the location and a brief description of the Pacific Aviation Museum on Ford Island. This museum appears on the first edition of Franko's Map of Pearl Harbor, which was released on June 26, 2006, but the grand opening day of the Pacific Aviation Museum is Pearl Harbor Day, December 7, 2006. Therefore, this new map of Pearl Harbor represents some kind of a press release to the new Pacific Aviation Museum on Ford Island. As the museum is developed and opened in phases, each subsequent edition for Franko's Map of Pearl Harbor will be updated to indicate the changes.
As of June, 2006, Franko's Map of Pearl Harbor was finished! I was never so nervous about printing a map. The subject of Pearl Harbor must be treated with such high respect and regard that I was still having worries about the quality and correctness of the production. However, I thought about my sudden awakening at 3am a month before when I had a clear vision of how to lay out the map, as if it were a gift from the Lord, and I confidently went to the print shop with my cd's, ready to roll. I had served the U.S. Navy Fleet for a period of 14 years of my life as an engineer, and now I somehow felt as though I was serving the Fleet once again.
Franko's Map of Pearl Harbor, Oahu is loaded with compelling images, and information about the December 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor, and present day Pearl Harbor. If you study this map you will learn what happened on that dreadful, infamous day. Side one of Franko's Map of Pearl Harbor features a wonderful view of Pearl Harbor during the attack of Sunday morning, December 7, 1941, known as the “Day of Infamy” when Pearl Harbor was suddenly and deliberately attacked by the Empire of Japan. You can see the history laid out right before your eyes. Each of America's battleships are laid out on the map, with short descriptions and stories of what happened. The stories include the awful explosion that destroyed the USS ARIZONA. It depicts how the USS NEVADA attempted to make a run for it, was beached next to the Floating Drydock which held the USS SHAW, and then was freed from this spot and shoved to the other side of the channel by heroic tug boat operators. A favorite story depicted on this side of the Pearl Harbor map is the one about the destroyer USS MONAGHAN, which had gotten underway just before the attack. It came across a Japanese midget submarine, which was being fired upon by the USS CURTIS, and the USS TANGIER . Interestingly, USS MONAGHAN had a full head of steam and it ran the midget sub right over - virtually keel-hauling the bugger before tossing a couple of depth charges on it to ensure the little sub's fate. What happened all around Pearl Harbor, including the Submarine Base, and out to sea are described and depicted.
Indeed, this interesting historical account was a huge undertaking. I think I understand what “aloha” means now! It is not just “hello” or “I love you”. It is a deep respect and reverence. I respect and revere the American heroes of that awful day, December 7, 1941, Pearl Harbor Day.
The following is not just a description of the various pieces of history recorded on Franko's Map of Pearl Harbor, but following are quotes taken right off the map itself verbatim. How else to describe what you will find on the map, but to quote it entirely?
SIDE ONE OF FRANKO'S MAP OF PEARL HARBOR
On side one of Franko's Map of Pearl Harbor, your eyes start in the lower left, and then go clockwise around the map, and down through the middle to learn a historical lesson about events leading up to the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, with accompanying photographs. This abridgement of history is extremely informative. Although it is said that a picture tells a thousand words, and there are many pictures to help with this superb history lesson, there are also a couple thousand words. Here they are:
WHY ATTACK PEARL HARBOR? Early in the 20th century, Imperialist Japan was expanding into Asia and the Pacific Ocean. In 1936 they allied themselves with Nazi Germany. In 1937 Nazi Germany and Imperialist Japan were joined by Fascist Italyto form the Axis alliance. In response to Japanese aggression, in 1941 the United States and Great Britain imposed an oil embargo on Japan. Imperialist Japan had two choices: give in to the demands of the Americans and British and back out of China, or try and gain control of oil and other resources, primarily from Southeast Asia. Japan chose the second course of action. To prevent U.S. Naval interference with their war plans, Japan began planning the attack on Pearl Harbor in January 1941. Finally, on November 26, 1941 a fleet including 6 aircraft carriers with 423 aircraft aboard, 17 war ships, 8 oilers, 30 submarines, and 5 midget submarines left Hitokappu Bay in the Kuril Islands for Oahu. The sneak attack was pre-planned to occur early Sunday morning, December 7, 1941, with the main intent of knocking out America's aircraft carrier fleet. History has proven that this apparently successful attack was in reality the undoing of the Japanese Empire's desire for Pacific and Asian dominance.
Next we are shown the AKAGI, the 855-foot Japanese aircraft carrier, and the flagship of Japan's First Air Fleet.
Admiral Chuichi Nagumo commanded a Japanese sneak attack force that included a fleet of aircraft carriers, battleships, heavy cruisers, light cruisers, destroyers, oilers, submarines, and midget subs for the attack on American forces in Oahu. Admiral Nagumo's mission was to "advance into Hawaiian waters, and at the very opening of hostilities, attack the main force of the U.S. Fleet in Hawaii." The six carriers included the AKAGI, HIRYU, SORYU, ZUIKAKU, KAGA, and SHOKAKU. However, just six months later, on June 4, 1942 the AKAGI was sunk by U.S. dive-bombers during the battle of Midway, as were the HIRYU, SORYU, and ZUIKAKU. In the end, except for one midget sub captured on Oahu, the only Japanese warship involved in the Oahu attack to survive the war was the destroyer USHIO. The Japanese Navy never recovered from the losses at Midway, and later at Guadalcanal, Leyte Gulf, and the Soloman Islands.
Above these descriptions I have drawn from scratch a map of the earth, looking at the Pacific Ocean, to show you the route traveled by the Japanese attack force to and from Oahu. The caption by this map is as follows:
THE TRACK OF THE JAPANESE ATTACK FLEET began at Hitokappu Bay in the Kuril Islands of Northern Japan on November 26, 1941. The fleet then headed eastward until directly north of Hawaii on December 3, where they turned to a southerly heading taking them to 230 miles north of Oahu by the early morning of December 7, 1941. From there the surprise attack began. Lt. Commander Mitsuo Fuchida, the leader of the first wave attack, radioed his carriers the famous command "Tora! Tora! Tora!" ("Tiger! Tiger! Tiger!") as his aircraft rounded Barbers Point and headed toward Pearl Harbor. Those famous code words meant that the attack was in fact a complete surprise. After two waves of attacks by 350 aircraft from six aircraft carriers, the hit-and-run fleet immediately fled northward. Most returned to Japan by December 22, 1941, although six ships were redeployed south to Midway Island on December 15.
Out of the 66 ships and submarines involved, only one survived World War II, the destroyer USHIO, which surrendered at Yokosuka Naval Base in 1945.
The Japanese lost 29 planes during the attack. Most of the 29 aircraft lost were Vals." The "Kates" dropped torpedoes specially modified with wooden fins for shallow waters from an altitude barely above the height of the target ship's deck.
I've drawn a map of Oahu and showing the routes taken by Japanese planes during their pair of attacks. The description that goes with the Oahu map is as follows:
Japan's first wave of 183 aircraft launched from six aircraft carriers 230 miles northof Oahu at 6:20am. At 6:45am a warning of the coming attack occured as the USS WARD destroyed an incoming Japanese midget submarine. A second warning came at 7:02am when Army radar operators at Kahuku Point saw a large formation of planes coming from the north on their radar screen. But they believed it to be American B-17bombers heading in from California.
At 7:40am Japanese Commanding Pilot Fuchida saw that the approach was indeed a surprise, and the words "Tora! Tora! Tora!" went out and the attack was on. However, the prime target - America's aircraft carriers - were away at that time. The plan was modified on the fly and the primary target became Battleship Row.
At 7:55am bombers and fighters attacked the airfields at Ford Island Kaneohe, Bellows,Wheeler, Ewa, and Hickam, immobilizing American air response.
Within 15 minutes sailors and civilians who were busy enjoying a Sunday morning breakfast were shocked by the sound of dozens of Japanese aircraft that were soon pounding Pearl Harbor.
Within minutes of the first wave attack America's battleships ARIZONA, UTAH, CALIFORNIA, OKLAHOMA, WEST VIRGINIA, and NEVADA were essentially sunk, and MARYLAND, TENNESSEE and PENNSYLVANIA were damaged by torpedoes and bombs. At 7:58 am Lt. Cmdr. Logan C. Ramsey ordered the following alarm to be sentout to the entire American Fleet:
"AIR RAID, PEARL HARBOR. THIS IS NOT DRILL!"
The pounding continued as the second wave with 167 aircraft began 55 minutes after the first.
As the second wave withdrew, Commander Fuchida signaled a return to the carriers.
Nearly 2400 Americans had been killed, 21 vessels were damaged or destroyed, and most of the aircraft on Oahu's airfields were destroyed. By 10:00am the first wave attack planes began to return to their aircraft carriers, and by noon all but 29 of theaircraft had returned. Japan's attack commander, Admiral Chiuchi Nagumo, felt the mission was now accomplished, even though the America's aircraft carriers and other important targets had not been hit. Fearing reprisal from American aircraft carriers, a possible third wave attack was scrubbed. Thus, Japanese naval and air forces failed to destroy America's Pacific Fleet.
Franko's Map of Pearl Harbor shows in great detail where each ship was at the time of the attack, and what happened to many of them during and after the attack. If you look closely you will not only see the ship and its name, but you can see which direction it was facing. The map is not only a picture of the way Pearl Harbor and the American Fleet was laid out at the instant of attack, but the dynamics of where various ships that were underway or which managed to get underway are also shown. Descriptions of the attack, from the vantage of the respective ships appear on the map are as follows:
USS MONAGHAN At 7:51am this Destroyer got underway to join the WARD in guarding the Pearl Harbor entrance. As she passed between CURTISS and TANGIER, both were firing at a midget sub. The MONAGHAN powered forward to flank speed and rammed the sub and tossed two depth charges for good measure. On Dec. 17, 1944,a powerful typhoon near the Philippines did what the enemy could not do in three years of battle. Only six men survived as the ship was lost at sea in the storm.
USS CURTISS The crew began firing on the incoming Japanese planes and downed three of them. Unfortunately one of them crashed into the ship and set her afire. Just before, at 8:06am, she spotted an enemy sub off her starboard quarter and successfully summoned the destroyer MONAGHAN for the kill.
USS UTAH This semi-retired ship was being used for target practice by American pilots. It was hit by two torpedoes in the opening moments of the attack and the ship capsized. She was deemed unsalvageable and left on her side. To this day she still entombs as many as 40 seamen.
USS RALEIGH Despite a near-capsizing due to a torpedo blast, the RALEIGH crew downed five Japanese aircraft and suffered no fatalities.
USS SOLACE Japanese bombers respected the SOLACE as a hospital ship, with its white paint and red cross. Launches from the SOLACE went out during the attack, picking up wounded men from flaming waters.
USS PHOENIX "Lucky Phoenix", a light cruiser, steamed past the flaming Battleship Row and out to sea without being hit. Observers on the PHOENIX saw the incomingJapanese planes and her crewmen immediately began firing at the enemy. One nearby bomb burst killed one of her crew, her only loss during the entire war.
USS NEVADA Attempted to sortie to sea at 8:40am. Just reaching the Floating Drydock YFD-2, her captain had to beach her to prevent sinking in the Harbor Channel. The vessel had been struck by one torpedo at mooring and five 250kg bombs along the way. Tugs helped her across the channel where she was beached off the Waipio Peninsula. One year later the repaired ship rejoined the Fleet, and went on to take part in the Normandy invasion, the invasion of Southern France, and the Battle of Okinawa.
USS ARIZONA This battleship was the most damaged out of all of the ships attacked. A 1756-lb. bomb detonated near the forward munitions magazine, resulting in an incredible explosion that destroyed the front half of the ship, and caused it to sinkin nine minutes, taking 1177 lives. There were 377 survivors. The unsalvageable ship was left on the bottom of the harbor. The USS ARIZONA still entombs over 900 crewmen.
USS WEST VIRGINIA Struck by up to nine torpedoes, extensive damage severelyhampered the post-attack raising of the ship. However, after repairs, the ship returned to service on July 4, 1944. She took part in the Battles of Leyte Gulf, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa, and was in Tokyo Bay during the Japanese surrender on September 2, 1945.
USS MARYLAND Struck by two bombs that did not inflict serious damage. The MARYLAND returned to active duty on Feb. 26, 1942. She went on to take part in the Battle of Midway, the invasion of the Gilbert Islands, the Battle of Tarawa, the invasion of Saipan, and the Battles of Leyte Gulf and Okinawa.
GARBAGE LIGHTER (YG 17) The heroic crew of this service ship assisted all over the harbor with its big pumps shooting water onto fires.
USS VESTAL Damaged by two 1756 lb. bombs, the repair ship VESTAL was helpedaway from the flaming ARIZONA by tugs. She was beached to keep from sinking and later repaired by her own crew.
USS TENNESSEE Struck by two bombs that did not detonate. She was again readyfor service on Feb. 26, 1942. Throughout the war the TENNESSEE remained near the west coast of the United States.
USS NEOSHO This oiler had just delivered aviation fuel to Ford Island. During the attack, knowing that her position blocked Battleship Row, she took the initiative without orders and chopped off her mooring lines and moved to the Dredge across the channel to clear the way for the USS MARYLAND. Then she moved to Merry Point behind the USS CASTOR, firing 171 rounds of anti-aircraft shells along the way. The NEOSHO was not damaged.
Beside ships, the attack was taken to the Air Stations as well. This is the story of Ford Island Naval Air Station:
FORD ISLAND NAVAL AIR STATION The Air Stations of Oahu were bombed and strafed simultaneously at the start of the Japanese raid. This included Naval Air Stations at Ford Island, Kaneohe, and Wheeler, plus Bellows Army Air Field and Marine Air Base at Ewa. This almost eliminated U.S. air response capabilities for the ensuing attack on Pearl Harbor. The U.S. Armed Services had adopted an anti-sabotage practice of bunching their aircraft and ships together out in the open. This made for easy targets for the enemy pilots.
SEAPLANE RAMP Ford Island Naval Air Station's seaplane ramp was damaged by the very first bomb of the attack on Pearl Harbor.
There are many other interesting hisrroies described on Franko's Map of Pearl Harbor. For example:
TUG ASSIST FOR USS NEVADA At 8:10am the NEVADA was hit by a torpedo, and at 8:40 she left her berth. At 9:00am she was bombed, and then beached near the Floating Dry Dock YFD-2. While she was aground the USS SHAW'S magazine exploded. Tugs came to the rescue and pushed the NEVADA around until her bow came free, and then pushed her across the channel where she settled on the shallow bottom at about 10:30am.
PEARL HARBOR NAVAL HOSPITAL On December 7, 1941 this was a small hospital. Teams of doctors, nurses and aides were put to the task of working around the clock on the hundreds of casualties from the attack. Civilian help including doctors, nurses, blood donors and the well organized Civilian Defense Program saved many lives. All area hospitals were over capacity. Four local schools were also used to care for the injured.
SUBMARINE BASE & TANK FARMS The Japanese attack force completely missed the Sub Base and the fuel tank farm. Had they damaged these facilities the resulting explosion and fire would have severely hampered the American recovery and war fighting capability. The entire U.S. Submarine Fleet devastated the Japanese Navy inthe ensuing war, destroying 55% of Japan's vast naval fleet by the end of World War II.
Then there are a few more description of what happened to the American Fleet:
USS OKLAHOMA Struck by at least seven torpedoes, the ship capsized. She was not brought upright until March of 1943, after which 400 bodies were recovered. The OKLAHOMA was deemed unsalvageable.
USS CALIFORNIA Struck by two torpedoes and one 250kg bomb, causing fire and flooding, the CALIFORNIA was repaired and reactivated on May 5, 1943. The ship took part in invasions of the Marianas and the Philippines, in the Battles of Leyte Gulf and Okinawa.
USS PENNSYLVANIA This flagship was in dry dock during the attack, and was struck by a 250kg bomb. She was repaired and ready for service on March 30, 1942. The PENNSYLVANIA took part in operations in the Aleutian Islands, Gilbert Islands, Marianas Islands, and the Battle of Leyte Gulf.
USS DOWNES & USS CASSIN Both of these ships appeared utterly destroyed after numerous bombs were dropped in Dry Dock No. 1. However, they were fixed, floated, and sent to Mare Island, California for complete restoration.
USS SHAW While in floating Dry Dock No. 2 the Shaw was struck by bombs that may have been intended for the fleeing NEVADA. Although extensively damaged, she was ingeneously made seaworthy and then shuttled to Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California for repairs.
USS HELM By chance, the destroyer HELM was already underway in Pearl Harbor's West Loch when the attack began. During the attack the ship sailed out of Pearl Harbor, sustaining moderate damage from Japanese bombs. The HELM went on to fight in the War in the Pacific including the Battles of Leyte Gulf, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa.
A few more short stories appear on the map as well:
HICKAM AIRFIELD A total of 139 people were killed and 303 wounded at HickamAirfield. However, the base continued to serve throughout World War II as a criticalbridge for American aircraft going to and from war zones in the Pacific.
FORT KAMEHAMEHA Pearl Harbor Channel was protected by Coast Artillery at Fort Kamehameha, named after Hawaii's great warrior and king. Fort Weaver across the channel also protected the harbor. However, these defenses were useless against theinfamous Japanese air assault of December 7, 1941.
Near the bottom middle of Franko's Map of Pearl Harbor there appears a depiction and caption that is very interesting. It is about the first shot fired by American in the entire World War II. In this event, a Japanese Midget Submarine was seen, attacked, and sunk about 2.5 miles off the Coast of Oahu in about 1200 feet of water. It was not until 2003 that this fact was proven, when a modern scientific submersible went down there and actually found the midget sub lying on the bottom, riddled with the holes inflicted by the USS WARD when she attacked. Aboard the submersible to witness the finding was one of the USS WARD's crewmember who actually depth charged the Japanese sub at 6:45am that morning, just minutes before the sneak attack on Pearl Harbor actually began. This could have been a warning of what was to come, but no one understood it at the time. This is a reminder that hindsight is always 20-20. It is a reminder of the dreadful attacks of 9/11 and how we were surprised that such a heinous attack could ever occur. Even if we could have understood some of the warning, no one would have believed that such an attack was imminent. It was not until 9/11/2001 that the generations that followed World War II could possible grasp the magnitude of what happened there at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. The first shot fired by America is described on Franko's Map of Pearl Harbor as follows:
THE FIRST SHOT FIRED BY THE U.S.A. IN WORLD WAR II The minesweeper USS CONDOR was on routine patrol off Oahu at 6:45am on December 7, 1941. Her crew spotted a small submarine in restricted waters approximately 2.5 nautical miles off the entrance to Pearl Harbor. CONDOR'S skipper signaled the destroyer WARD, also on patrol nearby. The WARD bombed the unknown enemy submarine with a depth charge. This was officially the very first shot fired by the United States in World War II. Meanwhile, the CONDOR headed back into Pearl Harbor, and thus the anti-submarine nets were opened. This allowed other Japanese midget subs to approach Pearl Harbor. However, all five of these German-designed, Japanese-built 2-man midget subs failed in their duties, with nine of their crewmen killed and one captured. The captured submariner was the first Japanese prisoner of war.
Side one features many photographic images with captions for each. You will have to see the map to appreciate the images (remember, a picture tells a thousand words). Never the less, here are the words that go with the images:
(Battleship Row, photo taken by a Japanese pilot) Hickam Field burns while Battleship Row has just begun to be attacked. Note the shock waves on the water from the first torpedo, which struck the USS WEST VIRGINIA. Hickam Field was attacked first to prevent an American air reprisal. In a moment the USS ARIZONA would receive a 1760 lb. bomb, which would explode its forward magazine, sinking the ship in nine minutes.
(Small boat approaching burning battleships) Fellow sailors come to the rescue by small boat as Battleship Row explodes and burns.
(Ford Island, photo taken by a Japanese pilot) A Japanese pilot's viewpoint of one of the first big explosions of the attack. It appears that Battleship Row's USS WEST VIRGINIA is taking on the first of nine torpedoes that nearly destroyed her. This sturdy battleship somehow survived the onslaught.
(The USS ARIZONA burning) The USS ARIZONA burns and sinks aftera massive explosion in the most notorious photograph of the the "Day of Infamy".
(Planes aboard a Japanese aircraft carrier) As day breaks on Dec. 7, 1941, 183 aircraft are readied for takeoff from six Japanese aircraft carriers, known as the "Strike Force", 230 miles north of Oahu.
(Ford Island's airfield with an huge explosion in the background) Shocked and injured airmen watch from amongst Ford Island's destroyed aircraft as the USS SHAW'S magazine blows up in Dry Dock No. 2. Japanese bombs were dropped on all of the Air Bases to prevent US planes from taking part in any counter-offensive to the Japanese sneak attack, or following the Japanese planes back to their carriers.
(Doris “Dorie” Miller) PEARL HARBOR HERO Defending and saving fellow sailors in the midst of this unexpected attack produced many heroes. An example is this man, Mess Attendant, 2nd Class Doris “Dorie” Miller, on the USS WEST VIRGINIA. He comforted his mortally wounded Captain, then, despite enemy bombs and strafing he took control of a 50-caliber machine gun for which he had no training, and fired at Japanese planes, downing at least one. Miller became the first African American ever to receive the Navy Cross, the second highest award given. He and 76 other Pearl Harbor heroes had future Navy ships named after them. On November 24, 1943 Miller died in action when his ship, the USS LISCOMBE BAY, was sunk by the enemy.
(President Franklin D. Roosevelt addressing a joint session of Congress at the Nation's Capitol) On December 8, 1941 President Franklin Delano Roosevelt addressed a joint session of Congress to formally request a Declaration of War with Japan. The president emotionally spoke the following famous words:"Yesterday, December 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy - the United States was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan."The unity of the United States reached an all-time high. Every American alive at the time knows the cry, "Remember Pearl Harbor!" Out of the ashes of this defeat came America's resilience and determination to preserve peace so that these dead shall not have died in vain.
SIDE TWO OF FRANKO'S MAP OF PEARL HARBOR
This side of Franko's Map of Pearl Harbor is a depiction of Pearl Harbor as it is today. On this rendering of Pearl Harbor you will read about the four main attractions at present day Pearl Harbor, and about the USS UTAH memorial. The four main attractions are the USS ARIZONA Memorial, the USS MISSOURI Museum, the USS BOWFIN Submarine Museum and Park, and the Pacific Aviation Museum, slated to open on December 7, 2006, with ongoing phases opening for several years to come. Also shown are the locations of the Battleship MISSOURI Memorial ticket office, the Battleship MISSOURI Memorial shuttle pickup, (which will also soon serve for the Pacific Aviation Museum pickup), the USS ARIZONA Memorial Visitor Center, and the USS ARIZONA Memorial boat launch.
USS ARIZONA Memorial
The USS ARIZONA is the final resting place for over 900 of the 1,177 crewmen who died on December 7, 1941. The Memorial is a 184-foot (56-meter) long bridge which spans directly midship over the sunken battleship. It has a boat dock that leads to an entry and assembly rooms, a central area for ceremonies and observation, and a shrine room, where the names of those sailors who were killed on the Arizona are engraved in a white marble wall. The memorial honors those who died in the attack. Initially the memorial was a flagpole with an American flag and a commemorative plaque, but by 1962 this serene and respectful structure was constructed. The USS ARIZONA Memorial is visited via shuttle boat launch from the visitor center after first seeing a historical movie about the Pearl Harbor attack.
On side two you will find a highly-detailed and accurate computer-aided drawing of the USS ARIZONA. This sounds fancy, but it is really just drawing with a mouse. The captions on this drawing are:
USS ARIZONA (BB39) The ARIZONA was launched on June 19, 1915, and was upgraded in the 1930's to counter Japan's quest to control the Pacific. She was a formidable battleship, with steel armor and a dozen 14" guns. She also had underwater torpedo tubes, eight anti-aircraft guns, and could launch seaplanes for scouting. She now sits with only her aft gun turret rising just above the sea harbor surface.
USS ARIZONA (BB39) STATISTICS:Class: Battleship (BB)Length: 608 feet (211 meters)Beam: 106 feet, 3 inches (32.4 meters)Draft Limit: 29 feet 10 inches (9.1 meters)Full Displacement: 34,207 tonsSailors Aboard When Attacked: 1,554Sailors Who Died on USS ARIZONA: 1,177
BATTLESHIP MISSOURI MEMORIAL
Visitors come aboard the world's last active battleship, BB 63, and relive the stories of adventure, war, victory and the road to peace in the Pacific. It was aboard the Mighty Mo that the official signing of the end of World War II took place. The Battleship Missouri Memorial ticket office is located next to the USS BOWFIN museum and park. The CHIEF'S GUIDED TOUR takes visitors through the ship, including to the Combat Engagement Center. The CAPTAIN'S TOUR is a VIP tour that includes refreshments in the Captain's cabin and souvenirs. The EXPLORER'S TOUR includes an in-depth tour throughout the ship, and includes a pass to the Mighty Mo Snack Bar. There are also audio tours, souvenir shops, and a Combat Motion Simulator to try out. The Battleship MISSOURI Memorial is an educational and extremely inspiring monument. The MISSOURI is visited via shuttle bus across Ford Island Bridge. It departs from the parking lot next to the USS BOWFIN Submarine Museum and Park.
On side two you will also find a highly-detailed and accurate computer-aided drawing of the USS MISSOURI. This drawing and its accompanying photograph depict the Mighty Mo” well, but there is nothing like climbing the steps to the deck of the ship and having your first look at those incredible 16-inch guns. Do you know that two of those guns together outweighs a huge 747 jetliner? When you take a tour of the “mighty Mo” you will not only view America and the world's last and greatest battleship, but you will also learn many things that you ought to know. Such as that it was on this ship that the official signatures representing the Japanese Empire's unconditional surrender in World War II were done. From this spot you can look forward and see the USS ARIZONA Memorial as it stretches 140 feet above and across the width of the sunken battleship, still entombing 900 men. This ship is extraordinary in its scale and impression. You will never forget your visit there. The captions I've put on the drawing of the “Mighty Mo” are as follows:
"THE MIGHTY MO" was launched on January 29, 1944, joining the Pacific Fleet in November, 1944. On the 01 Deck in a spot where visitors can now go, the officialsurrender of World War II was signed. The ship also performed meritorious andproud naval service in the Korean War and most lately in the 1991 Persian Gulf War.She was decommissioned in 1955, put in mothballs at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, only to be recommissioned in 1986. After the Persian Gulf War, in 1992 she was again decommissioned, and brought to her final home at Pearl Harbor in 1998.
USS MISSOURI (BB 63) STATISTICS:Class: Battleship (BB)Length: 887 feet, 3 inches (308.2 meters)Beam: 108 feet, 8 inches (33.1 meters)Draft Limit: 37 feet (11.3 meters)Full Displacement: 57,271 tonsAccommodations: 189 Officers, 2,789 Enlisted
TEAK WOOD DECK The USS MISSOURI has a wooden deck. This is because wood does not create static electricity, which could produce a spark, which would potentially ignite the black powder used to propel the 16" diameter rounds from its massive guns. Teak holds up better than any other wood available.
GALLEY The Mighty Mo's galley cooked 6,000 meals every day. The crew could consume over 100,000 soda pops per month. The word is that the food was good - very good.
OFFICIAL SURRENDER SPOT OF WORLD WAR II On the 01 Deck visitors can see exactly where the great war ended. The Surrender Plaque here on the 01 Deck reads: "USS Missouri. Over this spot on 2 September 1945 the instrument of formal surrender of Japan to the allied powers was signed thus bringing to a close the second world war. The ship at that time was at anchor in Tokyo Bay, Latitude 350 21' 17" North, Longitude 1390 45' 36" East." From this spot visitors can look forward and see the Arizona Memorial, and thus see the site of both the beginning and the end of American involvement in World War II at the same time.
SHIP'S POWER She's powered by eight massive boilers, running four electric turbines turning massive propellers. This enables her to cruise most efficiently at 16 knots, but with a top speed of 33 knots. At 16 knots she uses 2000 gallons of fuel oil per hour. Attop speed she uses over 10,000 gallons per hour.
KAMIKAZE There is a spot on the starboard side of the Mighty Mo's hull where a Japanese pilot crashed his plane. Fortunately it did no significant damage to the battleship, but it was fatal to the pilot, whose plane bounced off into the sea.
16 INCH GUNS Nine massive guns could fire a 2,700 pound shell more than 25 miles (40 km.). Huge turrets (seen in cut-away) could turn the guns 90 degrees in 23 seconds, and could elevate to 45 degrees in four seconds.
USS BOWFIN SUBMARINE MUSEUM AND PARK
This museum and park have restored and preserved the World War II submarine USS BOWFIN (SS-287) and submarine-related artifacts are within the park and in the museum. This wonderful site is presented and kept up by the Pacific Fleet Submarine Memorial Association, a non-profit organization.
You will find a highly-detailed and accurate computer-aided drawing of the USS BOWFIN. It is especially interesting to see the sleek form of a World War II American submarine drawn like this, but it is much better to visit the park and actually walk the length of the submarine, both inside and out. The descriptions on the map are as follows:
“THE PEARL HARBOR AVENGER” The USS BOWFIN was launched on December 7, 1942, exactly one year to the day after the infamous Pearl Harbor attack, and so she acquired this nickname. She was destined to wreak havoc on the Japanese Navy, sinking four military ships and 39 merchant ships during a total of nine war patrols. The USS BOWFIN combined with the rest of the U.S. Submarine Fleet in ultimately destroying 55% of all of Japan's vast naval force during World War II. BOWFIN is also recognized for meritorious support in laying mines, rescuing downed aviators, and supplying Philippine guerrilla troops. However, during the war the U.S. lost 52 submarines and 3500 submariners. A monumemt at the USS BOWFIN Park commemorates the loss of these heroes.
USS BOWFIN STATISTICS:Class: Balao SubmarineLength: 311 feet, 8 inches (95 meters)Beam: 27 feet, 2 inches (8.3 meters)Draft When Surfaced: 17 feet (5.2 meters)Displacement: 1525 tonsArmament: 10 21-inch torpedo tubes, one5-inch/25 caliber gun, one 40mm gun,one 20mm gun
PACIFIC AVIATION MUSEUM
Although this museum officially opens months after the premier edition of Franko's Map of Pearl Harbor is introduced, it is too important to leave off of the map of present-day Pearl Harbor. The captions for the various hangars and phases of the muweum are as follows:
Phase I of the Pacific Aviation Museum opens to the public on December 7, 2006. Luke Airfield's hangars and control tower are no longer being used, but still remain intact, and in nearly the same condition as in 1941. These structures are being converted into an aviation museum displaying a history of aviation in Hawaii and the Pacific. It is hoped that all four phases will be completed by December 2008.
HANGAR 37 is Phase I of the museum development and will open to the public on December 7, 2006. The hangar is 42,000 square feet, and will feature a World War II era aircraft and artifacts, a theater, a store, a restaurant, a flight simulation center, and an education center for children.
HANGAR 79 is Phase II of the museum development. The hangar is 76,000 square feet, and will contain aircraft exhibits focusing on the Korean, Vietnam, and Cold Wars. It will also include replicas of modern aircraft and spacecraft.
HANGAR 54 is Phase III of the museum development. The hangar is 86,000 square feet, and will contain exhibits focusing on World War II in the Pacific. It will also feature a full-scale replica of part of an aircraft carrier flight deck.
THE CONTROL TOWER Phase IV of the Pacific Aviation Museum development will feature the Ford Airfield's Control Tower, opening in 2008.
USS UTAH MEMORIAL
Because the USS UTAH Memorial is not easily accessible to the public, few are able to pay their respects to the loss of this ship and her crewmen, many of whom are still entombed within, ever since she was torpedoed and capsized on December 7, 1941. However, she certainly deserves an honorable mention on the face of this map. IT is difficult to pay her a proper respect, but here is the caption I wrote:
This site is seldom visited due to lack of drive-up convenience. The ship capsizedafter being struck by two torpedoes during the December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor attack,and remains that way today. The exact number of sailors who died during thePearl Harbor attack and are still entombed inside is not known.
A handful of color photographs appear on this side of Franko's Map of Pearl Harbor. They show you a brief overview of what is there. Again, a picture tells a thousand words, but in this case, you just have to go there to see and feel the spirit of Pearl Harbor. On July 4, 2006, I was at Pearl Harbor, right next to the USS ARIZONA Memorial and Visitor Center to witness the Independence Day fireworks. As they blasted and illuminated the world's greatest Navy ship, the aircraft carrier USS RONALD REAGAN, on the near side of the channel and the USS MISSOURI on the far side of the channel, as well as the USS ARIZONA Memorial, I felt happy and proud to have created this map to show the world what Pearl Harbor has come to mean to me. However, with the simple Fourth of July fireworks and the booms they made, I realized that one really cannot express in words or pictures the awful tragedy of war, or any portion of it. I can only hope that these photographs, which were the finishing touches to this huge project will tell a little bit more of the story. The photos are described as follows:
(Pearl Harbor taken from an airplane) Pearl Harbor aerial view shows Ford Island, The “Mighty Mo”, the USS ARIZONA Memorial and Visitor Center, and the USS BOWFIN Museum and Park.
(The USS ARIZONA Memorial) The USS ARIZONA Memorial as it appears from the National Park Service launch as it approaches the monument from the Visitors Center.
(Aerial view of the USS ARIZONA Memorial) This aerial view of the USS ARIZONA Memorial reveals the form of one of America's great battleships. You can see the outline of the USS ARIZONA through the water. She is now in the final resting place for over 900 sailors killed in the attack on Pearl Harbor.
(Aboard the USS MISSOURI) Battleship MISSOURI'S mighty 16” guns were as awesome as they appear. Standing on the deck of the USS MISSOURI looking up at her guns is an amazing sight. This picture shows you what an awesome sight this is, but being there is everything. One can envision these huge guns firing with a mighty blast, sending a 2500 pound projectile 23 miles to its target. USS MISSOURI 'S teak decking is still beautiful after over 60 years of wear. The “Mighty Mo” is an important part of world history and is a must-see memorial in Pearl Harbor.
(USS BOWFIN submarine) The BOWFIN was one of the top-scoring submarines in the U.S. Navy. She sailed and fought throughout the Western Pacific on nine war patrols over a two-year span. When Rear Admiral Ralph W. Christie chose to become the only U.S. Flag Officer ever to deploy aboard a U.S. submarine during war patrol he selected the USS BOWFIN as his boat.
That is a complete description of Franko's Map of Pearl Harbor, and just about every detail on it. I recommend that you get this map, explore Pearl Harbor thoroughly, and then buy another map and give it to someone you love! Spread the word about how important and awesome this site is.
Aloha and Mahalo!- FRANKO